Wednesday, 14 January 2009

Introduction



This blog's main thrust is about learning Latin, or rather consolidating on what you’ve learnt in Latin. To that end I will take a a short piece of Latin and examine each word in its context. I shall use the stories from Aesop and will use a 1787 translation by the excellent Dr Clarke. His translation has the added bonus of of being in an older version of English but still easily readable.
Reading Latin in the original will also need practice, presenting the Fable as an Illuminated Manuscript written in a Gothic script will I hope get the eye used to strange characters and abbreviations.

Click on the image to increase it to a readable size.







The Wolf and the Fox.

Heres a picture about the action going on in the fable.
It's after an engraving by Francis Barlow a 17C book
illustrator.














Lupus, cum esset satis Praedae, degebat in Otio.


Lupus :- is a second declension singular masculine Nominative noun.
Normally shown in dictionaries as lupus, lupi
Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Nominative lupus wolf lupi wolves
Vocative lupe O wolf lupi O wolves
Accusative lupum wolf lupos wolves
Genitive lupi of the wolf luporum of the wolves
Dative lupo to/for the wolf lupis to/for the wolves
Ablative lupo by/from/with the wolf lupis by/from/with the wolves

Cum :- when , an adverb , cum when used in a temporal sense means when,
More often used as a preposition with the ablative meaning with.

esset :- there was , this is from the imperfect active subjunctive of the irregular
verb “to be” sum,esse,fui,futurus


The subjunctive expresses an element of uncertainty, often a wish, desire, doubt or
hope. It often follows the adverb cum.


There are many ways of translating the subjunctive , here is one

essem I might have
esses you might have
esset he/she/it might have
essemus we might have
essetis you might have
essent they might have

satis enough – an undeclined adjective

Praedae :- of prey, is a first declension singular feminine genitive noun.

Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Nominative praeda prey praedae preys
Vocative praeda O prey praedae O preys
Accusative praedam prey praedas preys
Genitive praedae of prey praedarum of preys
Dative praedae to/for prey praedis to/for preys
Ablative praeda by/from/with prey praedis by/from/with preys

degebat :- spend, live on. 3rd conjugation imperfect active indicative verb.
Normally found in dictionaries as dego, degere, degi, -

Person Singular meaning plural meaning
1st degebam I live on degebamus we live on
2nd degebas thou/you live on degebatis you live on
3rd degebat he//she/it lives on degebant they live on

in :- in, preposition before an ablative translated as in

otio :- idleness , rest ease, holiday
A 2nd declension neuter ablative noun. Otium, oti(i)

Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Nominative otium rest otia rests
Vocative otium O rest otia O rests
Accusative otium rest otia rests
Genitive oti(i) of rest otiorum of rests
Dative otio to/for rest otiis to/for the rests
Ablative otio by/from/with rest otiis by/from/with rests

Lupus, cum esset satis Praedae, degebat in Otio.
The wolf, when there was enough of Prey lived in idleness.


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Vulpecula accedit, sciscitatur Causam Otii.


Vulpecula :- little fox note Vulpe is fox
1st declension feminine nominative

Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Nominative vulpecula little fox vulpeculae little foxes
Vocative vulpecula O little fox vulpeculae O little foxes
Accusative vulpeculam little fox vulpeculas little foxes
Genitive vulpeculae little fox vulpecularum of little foxes
Dative vulpeculae to/for little fox vulpeculis to/for little foxes
Ablative vulpecula by/from/with little fox vulpeculis by/from/with little foxes


accedit he/she/it approches,agrees with .
3rd conjugation present active indicative verb.
Normally found in dictionaries as accedo, accedere, accessi, accessus

Person Singular meaning plural meaning
1st accedo I approach accedimus we approach
2nd accedis thou/you approach acceditis you approach
3rd accedit he//she/it approches accedunt they approach

sciscitatur he/she/it asks,questions .
1st conjugation present indicative deponent verb.
Normally found in dictionaries as sciscitor, sciscitari,sciscitatus sum
This is a deponent verb passive in construction active in intent.

Person Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
1st scisitor I ask sciscitamur we ask
2nd sciscitaris thou/you ask sciscitamini you ask
3rd sciscitatur he//she/it asks sciscitantur they ask

causam :- cause, reason, motive
1st declension feminine accusative

Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Nominative causa reason causae reasons
Vocative causa O reason causae O reasons
Accusative causam reason causas reasons
Genitive causae of reason causarum of reasons
Dative causae to/for reason causis to/for reasons
Ablative causa by/from/with reason causis by/from/with reasons


Otii :-of idleness , rest ease, holiday
A 2nd declension neuter genative noun. Otium, oti(i)

Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Nominative otium rest otia rests
Vocative otium O rest otia O rests
Accusative otium rest otia rests
Genitive oti(i) of the rest otiorum of the rests
Dative otio to/for rest otiis to/for the rests
Ablative otio by/from/with rest otii by/from/with rests

Vulpecula accedit, sciscitatur Causam Otii.
The fox comes to him and demands the cause of his idleness

==================================================================

Lupus sensit, fieri insidias, simulat morebum esse causam,
.

Lupus :- wolf is a second declension singular masculine Nominative noun.

Normally shown in dictionaries as lupus, lupi
Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Nominative lupus wolf lupi wolves
Vocative lupe O wolf lupi O wolves
Accusative lupum wolf lupos wolves
Genitive lupi of the wolf luporum of the wolves
Dative lupo to/for the wolf lupis to/for the wolves
Ablative lupo by/from/with the wolf lupis by/from/with the wolves


sensit :- perceives,feels,thinks - third person perfect indicative singular.
Sentio, sentire, sensi ,sensus
This is a forth conjugation verb.it is also in the perfect which means completed
actions in the past so I’ll have to put my thinking cap on how to translate it.
Its based on sensi (see above)
Writing this out I’m suddenly struck by now close to the word senses it is.


Person Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
1st sentiam I perceived sensimus we perceived
2nd sensisti thou/you perceived sensistis you perceived
3rd sensit he/she/it perceived senserunt they perceived

fieri :- there were
To be quite honest I’m on shaky ground here although fieri is aa infinitive
From fio,feri,factum sum and is a semi-deponent verb and means “to be done”
I will stick with Dr Clarks trasalation of “there were”

Notwithstanding heres a paradigm of the present indicative

fio,fieri, factum

Person Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
1st fio I become fimus we become
2nd fis thou/you become fitis you become
3rd fit he/she/it becomes fiunt they become

insidias :- ambush, plot, treachery, trap
1st declension feminine plural accusative

Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Nominative insidia treachery insidiae treacheries
Vocative insidia O treachery insidiae O treacheries
Accusative insidia treachery insidias treacheries
Genitive insidiae of treachery insidiarum of treacheries
Dative insidiae to/for treachery insidiis to/for treacheries
Ablative insidia by/from/with treachery insidiis by/from/with treacheries

simulat :- imitate, copy, pretend present, active, indicative third person singular.

Simulo, simulare, simulavi, simulatus
This is a first conjugation, this is how it appears in a dictionary
The entire conjugation of the verb can be formed.


Person Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
1st simulo I pretend simulamus we pretend
2nd simulas thou/you pretend simulatis you pretend
3rd simulat he/she/it pretends simulant they pretend

Morbum :- sickness, illness, weakness, disease
is a second declension singular masculine accusative noun.

Normally shown in dictionaries as morbus, morbi

Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Nominative morbus disease morbi diseases
Vocative morbe O disease morbi O diseases
Accusative morbum disease morbos disease
Genitive morbi of disease morborum of the diseases
Dative morebo to/for disease morebis to/for diseases
Ablative morebo by/from/with disease morebis by/from/with diseases

esse :- to be , this is the infinitive of the irregular verb
“to be” sum,esse,fui,futurus

causam :- cause, reason, motive
1st declension feminine accusative

Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Nominative causa reason causae reasons
Vocative causa O reason causae O reasons
Accusative causam reason causas reasons
Genitive causae of reason causarum of reasons
Dative causae to/for reason causis to/for reasons
Ablative causa by/from/with reason causis by/from/with reasons
Lupus sensit, fieri insidias, simulat morebum esse causam,
The wolf perceived, there were treacheries,pretends a disease to be the cause.
=============================================================================

Orat vulpeculum ire precatum, Deos


Oratasks for, begs, pray, beseech – third person indicative singular
In this first use of pray in this sentence it has more of the sense of ask
Rather than praying.

oro, orare, oravi , oratus

Person Singular meaning plural meaning
1st orio I pray orimus we pray
2nd oris thou/you pray oristis you pray
3rd orat he/she/it prays orant they pray

Vulpecula :- little fox note Vulpe is fox
1st declension feminine nominative

Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Nominative vulpecula little fox vulpeculae little foxes
Vocative vulpecula O little fox vulpeculae O little foxes
Accusative vulpeculam little fox vulpeculas little foxes
Genitive vulpeculae little fox vulpecularum of little foxes
Dative vulpeculae to/for little fox vulpeculis to/for little foxes
Ablative vulpecula by/from/with little fox vulpeculis by/from/with little foxes

ire – to go present active infinitive
From the irregular verb eo, ire, ivi (ii) , itus

Precatum :- pray This is a verbal participal and deponent to boot.
I wont conjugate it till I’m sure what I’m doing. I will just stick with Dr Clarks translation.

Deos :- Gods is a second declension plural masculine Accustaive noun.

Normally shown in dictionaries as lupus, lupi

Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
Nominative deus god di gods
Vocative deus O sod di O gods
Accusative deum god deos gods
Genitive dei of the god deorum/deum of gods
Dative deo to/for god dis to/for gods
Ablative deo by/from/with god dis by/from/with gods

Orat vulpeculum ire precatum, Deos
Prays the fox to go to pray the gods








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